Imagine you’re a toughened fisherman in the early 1900s. You look into the sky and see a familiar sight: gulls banking over the sand dunes. But today, there are two men looking up intently at the birds. Both men are flapping their elbows and twisting their wrists in emulation of the wings of the seabirds above.
You may conclude, as many residents of North Carolina’s Outer Banks surely did, that you’re watching lunatics. In fact, the two men on the dune represent innovation in motion. According to historian David McCullough in his biography, Wilbur and Orville Wright were, on that occasion, deep into the observations and experimentation that would open the door to human flight.
No one forced the Wrights to make the arduous trip to the primitive and isolated Outer Banks, nor to invest their meager funds in pursuit of a breakthrough many experts had labeled impossible. No one forced them to persist when their first attempts lay broken and crumbled in the sand, nor to keep trying when death came within inches of claiming Orville’s life. They stepped forward voluntarily to take on a challenge that had consumed them since childhood. They were self-selected for innovation.
Innovation vs. Invention
It’s clear that new paths forward are needed as health care continues to confront change. In the strategy work I do for clients, innovation is coming up more frequently. This raises an obvious question: What is innovation anyway? A review of the variety of definitions of innovation brings me to this:Innovation is doing something differently to generate significantly more value.
An invention is not an innovation. It becomes an innovation only when it is applied in such a way as to generate significant new value. Venture capitalists call the distance between an invention and an innovation Death Valley because transforming an invention into value is such an immense challenge. Most innovations are the result of converting existing things into new uses. Thus, innovation always benefits from enriched awareness of what’s out there beyond the would-be innovator’s range of experience.
The Wright Flyer was an innovation because it allowed men to move over the ground with greater speed and ease than previous forms of transport. Similarly, Henry Ford’s assembly line allowed automobiles to be manufactured faster and cheaper. Edison’s light bulb illuminated the world.
Not every innovation delivers its increased value immediately. And not all innovations are accompanied by “ah-ha!” Indeed, many are greeted with “hmm,” and that’s particularly true in health care where the bar for demonstrated utility is set particularly high. For example, more than a century ago, the multispecialty group practice pioneered by Mayo Clinic represented a significant organizational innovation. Today, it still struggles with adoption by an industry and profession heavily invested in alternative models.
Walter Isaacson has a knack for picking compelling stories and telling them brilliantly. In his book The Innovators, he chronicles the contributions of the innovators who translated the computer and the Internet into world-shaping realities. Isaacson distills some key lessons:
· Innovation is a team sport. The Wrights, like Ford and Edison before them, often have been portrayed as eccentric loners. But the Wrights, when they were developing their flyer, persistently reached out to others for insights. It was four Ford employees who pioneered the moving assembly line. And Edison was supported by a lab full of assistants. Innovation depends on collaboration. This was true during the Scientific Revolution, the Enlightenment and the Industrial Revolution, and it is true to an even greater extent in the Digital Age.
· Collaboration occurs not only among contemporaries but also “between generations.” According to Isaacson, “The best innovators were those who understood the trajectory of technological change and took the baton from innovators who preceded them.”
· Combining a wide array of specialists generates the most productive teams. Here Isaacson uses the example of Bell Labs and its amalgamation of theoretical physicists, experimentalists, material scientists, engineers, businessmen and even telephone climbers “with grease under their fingernails.”
· Physical proximity plays an important role. “There is something special … about meetings in the flesh, which can’t be replicated digitally … ” accordingto Isaacson.
· Complementary styles constitute the best leadership for innovation. This includes pairing visionaries who can generate ideas with operating managers who can execute them. The most successful innovations arise from collaboration anchored to a clear vision.
· Teams that have innovated have been assembled in three ways: through government funding (ARPANET, predecessor of the Internet), through private enterprise (as occurred at Bell Labs, Xerox PARC and eventually at Apple) and through voluntary effort (as evidenced by Wikipedia, Linux and Firefox).
· Humans are social animals. A desire for interaction has energized cities, CB radios and Facebook.
Finally, Isaacson reminds us that, as Steve Jobs consistently emphasized, innovation occurs “at the intersection of technology and the humanities.” In the early 1800s, Ada Lovelace, daughter of Lord Byron and prophet of the Computer Age, called this intersection the locus of “poetical science.”
Robert Pirsig was underscoring a similar point in Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance when he suggested that Buddha rests as comfortably on the gears of a motorcycle as he does on a lotus blossom. And the physicist Richard Feynman was pointing in the same direction when he suggested that you know when the science “is right” because it is “beautiful.” Thoughtful physicians will remind those willing to listen that there is still much art, beauty and uncertainty in medicine. This suggests there’s plenty of room for innovation in health care.
Innovation in Health Care
Unfortunately, most hospitals and health systems today lack a tradition or capacity for innovation. They are bereft of anything resembling a research and development budget or any other sort of funding for innovation in the delivery of care. While academic medical centers attract research dollars, this is almost exclusively reserved for clinical research and basic science.
Only rarely are there significant resources and infrastructure dedicated to innovation in the delivery of care. Banner Health, Intermountain Healthcare and Geisinger Health System have made commitments to such innovation, as has Cleveland Clinic. Beacon Health System in South Bend, Ind., under the leadership of Philip Newbold, has committed itself to spreading innovation, education and leadership training throughout its region.
In Grand Rapids, Mich., a tradition of innovation in furniture production and design has spilled over to two health systems, Mercy Health of Western Michigan and Spectrum Health. Mercy is part of Trinity Health, which is led by Richard Gilfillan, M.D., former head of CMS’s Innovation Center. But these examples remain rare exceptions.
In a landscape of relative scarcity related to innovation, Mayo Clinic is the most notable exception. Its Center for Innovation (CFI) got its start in 2001 as an initiative within the department of medicine. It was able to draw on Mayo’s century-long investment in management engineering focused on the delivery of care. CFI established partnerships with outside organizations, including the innovation consulting firm IDEO and the furniture manufacturer Steelcase. (Think Big, Start Small, Move Fast, authored by Nicholas LaRusso, M.D., Barbara Spurrier, M.H.A., and Gianrico Farrugia, M.D., profiles in detail the work of Mayo’s CFI.)
Today, the Mayo Clinic Care Network is one of the few examples of substantial deployment of innovation in the delivery of health care. As of this writing, there are more than 30 hospitals and health systems in the network, which spans coast to coast. Member institutions have access to a defined set of services — including eConsults, which bring the expertise of Mayo specialists to the community electronically so patients don’t need to travel; “Ask a Mayo Expert” that serves as a 24/7 Web-based information system allowing network physicians to connect with expert clinical information on hundreds of medical conditions; and “management consulting” that provides access to peers, tools and expertise that help network members tap into the value of Mayo Clinic’s integrated clinical care and practice models.
In concept, eConsults would seem to be a fairly straightforward service offering. But it reflects years of intensive development and refinement that started in 2009 in Mayo’s CFI. It began as a collaboration with Mayo’s largest commercial payer, Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Minnesota, and a pilot clinic hundreds of miles distant in Duluth. As of 2015, 170 medical conditions appropriate for an eConsult had been identified and more than 14,000 eConsults had been completed.
The Mayo Care Network has allowed the CFI’s staff and projects to be more fully amortized by deploying them to member organizations. Participants pay Mayo a significant membership fee and the services available provide quantifiable benefits for the members as well as for Mayo. Importantly, the network allows Mayo to further expand and solidify its referral base and its brand nationally without risking significant capital.
Innovation at High-Performing Systems
Dan Wolf has served on the board of Munson Healthcare in Traverse City, Mich., for 15 years, most recently as chairman. Munson is consistently recognized as one of the highest-performing health systems in Michigan. Wolf is also a member of the National Advisory Board of the American Hospital Association’s Center for Healthcare Governance and a board member of RedSky, an innovation incubator in El Paso, Texas. He has authored a book on strategy, Prepared and Resolved, as well as articles in Trustee magazine on the board’s role in fostering innovation.
Over the past few years, I’ve had occasion to explore with him the current state of innovation in health care and options for punching it up. Out of those conversations, some observations and a possible framework emerged:
First, Mayo Clinic is and always has been an exception. Its culture, capabilities and reputation, developed and refined over a century, make something like its Center for Innovation possible. The appendix of Think Big, Start Small, Move Fast lists nearly 40 high-level innovation projects underway at Mayo for 2014. Although the CFI’s staff of 60 full-time professionals may be relatively small by Fortune 500 standards, it is 60 times greater than you’ll find in most American hospitals and health systems when you assess their human resource commitment to innovation. For most of these organizations, such a commitment is beyond the realm of the possible. Still, Mayo’s experience and collaborative approach provide insights for other health care providers.
Next, innovation requires a degree of risk-taking. Hospitals and health systems are inherently conservative. As a result, there are few people in hospitals and health systems with experience as innovators.
From Wolf’s perspective, continued pressure on their existing resources “ … almost guarantees most hospitals and health systems will not, on their own, be able to afford to make meaningful investments in innovation.” Investment involves more than money. It includes investment of experience, time and energy, all of which are scarce. The key question is whether the success demonstrated by Mayo can be emulated by other means, particularly through collaboration between otherwise independent hospitals and health systems. In Wolf’s view, the answer is yes, although a new funding model will be needed. If the innovation budgets for most hospitals and health systems are zero, then 10, 20 or 30 times zero is still zero.
Because of resource constraints, says Wolf, cost-sharing by “collaboratives” of hospitals and health systems provides the only practical path for generating high-impact innovation. Innovation won’t arise out of unfunded good intentions. It will take cash on the table. It is reasonable to expect that even in an environment of increasing pressure on margins, a 300-bed hospital could invest $100,000 annually in innovation. Together, multiple organizations ought to be able to contribute the financial investment necessary to develop and deploy innovations that can generate significant value for participants in a collaborative.
In addition, innovation should more than pay for itself. If an innovation can’t at least triple the financial investment in it, then it’s probably not an innovation because it doesn’t meet the criteria of “significant” improvement. The money and time invested probably should have been invested elsewhere.
According to Wolf, “An organization should have a solid strategic plan in place before it initiates innovation efforts. Innovation should be strategically disciplined.” This means innovation needs to be focused toward clearly articulated organizational aspirations. In other words, it ought to be aligned with and contribute to the organization’s vision and driving strategies as set forth in its strategic plan.
Unfocused, suggestion-box innovation programs should be avoided. Simply encouraging the organization to go forth and innovate is likely to produce a lot of smoke and very little fire. So what then of creativity and serendipity? Wolf observes, “There is plenty of room within the focused arenas of five or so driving strategies for creativity and serendipity. Indeed, it’s likely that tightly defining the ‘sandbox’ will accelerate rather than retard innovation.”
For a collaborative effort involving multiple hospitals or health systems, it’s likely that there will be driving strategies in common within the participating organizations’ strategic plans. Those areas of shared strategic commitment can point the way toward high-payoff opportunities for collaborative innovation. For example, over the past three years, “access” has emerged as a common strategic theme for many hospitals and health systems. Indeed, Mayo eConsults might properly be subsumed as an innovative tactic under a broader, driving strategy related to improving access to Mayo expertise.
Innovation teams drawn from the participating organizations in a collaborative would “self-select,” Wolf believes, to focus on opportunities defined by shared strategies. These teams should be multidisciplinary and nonhierarchical. It will be critical that they include front-line caregivers, including physicians and nurses. Efforts should be made to ensure that the teams embody in their backgrounds and interests the intersection of “technology and humanities.”
In a resource-scarce environment, says Wolf, volunteerism must be a central distinguishing attribute of a productive innovation collaborative. Volunteerism is premised on the expectation that, like the Wright brothers, some individuals will be motivated to step forward and contribute their time, thinking and energy to creating high-impact innovations if the opportunities to do so are sufficiently compelling. Some people will not be interested in participating or will be unable to do so because of other legitimate commitments. Innovation has always relied on self-selection and self-motivation. Time dedicated would, for the most part, be contributed after hours. Innovation team members would be uncompensated. Reward would take the form of recognition and collegiality.
A collaborative will need a “virtual garage.” Garages have played a central role in the histories of several innovators, perhaps most famously in the case of Hewlett-Packard. The garage afforded space that was cheap and proximate. Innovators would come home from their regular work, notes Wolf, then head to the garage. Jobs and Wozniak got started in their garage; Cleveland Clinic CEO Toby Cosgrove, M.D., pioneered innovative new medical devices in his garage. The digital space in which volunteers convene to share, develop and apply their thinking requires a robust simple electronic infrastructure connecting participants. This system should be separate from existing clinical information systems and designed wholly for communication, collaboration and coordination.
Although digital connections will be fundamental to day-to-day communication and coordination, as Isaacson and others have insisted, personal proximity still will be important to innovative collaboration. Mechanisms should be put in place that allow participants to periodically engage in face-to-face interaction. This suggests that the hospitals and health systems participating in a collaborative should be within a reasonable driving distance from one another. Legitimate expenses related to automobile travel and local accommodations should be reimbursed by the participating organizations.
There should be a relatively small coordinating team to help manage a collaborative. This would be a handful of individuals with full-time responsibility for focusing and coordinating the work of the collaborative.
Finally, internal labs tend to become hamstrung, Wolf observes, and constrained within the culture and infrastructure of their sponsoring organizations. IBM recognized this when it was developing its personal computer and located the effort in Boca Raton, Fla., far from the potentially suffocating “mainframe culture” still dominant within the company at the time. Such spin-off incubators came to be called “skunk works” — distinct, separate and semiautonomous laboratories where new ideas and technologies could be applied. Most famous of these was Lockheed Aircraft’s skunk works, within which designs for stealth aircraft emerged. An innovation collaborative, says Wolf, would require arm’s length autonomy similar to that of a skunk work to ensure its vitality.
A Framework for Innovation
It is important for leaders to visualize a “framework for innovation” so it can be integrated with other organizational models and effectively communicated. Fortunately, there are models used in other industries that may help to provide a framework for the work of innovation collaboratives in health care.
When Wilbur and Orville stood emulating seabirds, they were engaged in what might best be described as “exploratory divergence.” Faced with a complex problem (sustainable human flight), they moved far beyond their bicycle shop and examined nature — more specifically, the behavior of birds. In retrospect, this seems a perfectly appropriate method for discerning the fundamental dynamics of flight. But it wasn’t conventional thinking at the time. Out of this divergence, the Wright brothers then were able to “converge” on a redefined problem: how to replicate the wing warping birds used to control their flight. This problem was addressed and the solution was embodied in their flying machine.
In 2003, Alinghi, a high-tech boat from landlocked Switzerland, won the America’s Cup, sailing’s most coveted prize. The divergent team that developed and raced Alinghi comprised more than 100 motivated experts and athletes from 15 countries funded by Swiss billionaire Ernesto Bertarelli. The team innovated by diverging and then converging to apply a Swiss researcher’s modeling of fluid flow in human blood vessels to the design of Alinghi’s hull and sails.
Today, the idea lab at the Wright Brothers Institute works with organizations worldwide to apply what it calls “divergent collaboration.” In that “divergent space” reside existing solutions to what might otherwise be experienced as novel problems.
Innovation in Other Fields
Many of the problems confronting health care probably have been confronted in other industries and fields. TRIZ is a Russian acronym for “theory of inventive problem solving” and is perhaps the only theory of innovation with genuine scientific underpinnings. It is based on an intensive study of patent literature worldwide by Soviet inventor and science fiction writer Genrich Altshuller and gave rise to the recognition that there are consistent patterns of innovation discernable in all fields of science and technology.
(Altshuller’s research related to TRIZ was interrupted when he was arrested in 1950 and imprisoned in the Vorkuta Gulag labor camp for disagreeing with the government of Joseph Stalin. Those who find innovation hard work might keep the challenges Altshuller faced in mind).
Application of TRIZ is consistent with divergent collaboration in that it involves moving beyond a particular problem to look for the same problem exhibited in other industries and fields worldwide, then onto identification of a generic solution, which then can be recrafted to provide a specific solution to the problem at hand. Like Lean methodology, TRIZ has developed a devoted following who have created many tools for applying it.
Another concept well-fitted to the operation of an innovation collaborative in what MIT research fellow Peter Gloor called COINs in his book Swarm Creativity. COINs is an acronym for “collaborative innovation networks,” which Gloor defines as “a cyberteam of self-motivated people with a collective vision, enabled by the Web to collaborate in achieving a common goal by sharing ideas, information and work.” The Linux operating system and Wikipedia, the online encyclopedia, are two examples.
Through the Internet, COINs connect people self-organized as teams. These teams communicate and collaborate directly rather than through hierarchies. They work toward a common goal out of personal commitment rather than directives from superiors. They usually form around an idea or initiative that is outside their organizational boundaries and that cuts across conventional functions and departments. COINs “ … create and share knowledge and ideas in an environment of high trust by collaborating under a common code of ethics.”
The elements described above can be pulled together in a conceptual framework for an innovation collaborative. The following figure illustrates a framework structure to facilitate discovery of analogous problems outside health care and focus on shared solutions to shared problems.
Innovation in health care delivery remains severely underdeveloped and anemic at a time when it is desperately needed. The truth is most hospitals and health systems don’t dedicate resources to innovation because they don’t have the resources. This is a problem that won’t be addressed by government largess or by private sector investment. The only avenue forward is disciplined collaboration between multiple hospitals and health systems. This can be accomplished through formation of “innovation collaboratives” focused to high-level challenges shared between organizations. But such efforts won’t occur absent a firm push from health care executives and board members.
Elizabeth G. Nabel, M.D., president of Brigham and Women’s Health Care in Boston, recently emphasized the importance of pushing innovation: “As we navigate the ever-changing health care landscape, I believe a crucial part of my role is to nurture the innovative environment at Brigham and Women’s Hospital, and provide concrete opportunities for our faculty, investigators and staff to try out new ideas. From innovation units piloting new models of care to unique competitions that encourage bold thinking, and hospitalwide events that promote collaboration, I know that the answers to so many of the challenges we face in health care are right here — and my role is to provide an environment where those answers can be found and future innovations can flourish.”
Dan Beckhamis the president of The Beckham Co., a strategic consulting firm based in Bluffton, S.C. He is also a regular contributor to H&HN Daily.